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全球教席“云课堂”——William M. Treanor: 我们人民:风格委员会与美国宪法的起草

全球教席云课堂30讲
  
题目:我们人民:风格委员会与美国宪法的起草(We the People of the United States:The Committee of Style and the Drafting of the United States Constitution)
  
时间:2021 年 6 月 9 日(周三)9:00-10:30
  
腾讯会议ID:512 913 287
  
开讲学者:
William M. Treanor(美国乔治城大学法学院院长、Paul Regis Dean Leadership讲席教授、法学教授)
  
主持人:
左亦鲁(永利澳门402am网址助理教授)
  
评议人:
刘晗(清华大学法学院副教授)
阎天(永利澳门402am网址助理教授)
  
开讲学者简介:
 
 
  William M. Treanor 教授曾四次被美国《国家法学家杂志》评为法学教育最具影响力人物之一。他还曾被美国芝加哥大学法学院的 Brian Leiter 列为美国引证率最高的十大法律史学者之一。他的研究领域包括宪法学、财产法、刑法、知识产权和法律史。他在乔治城大学法学院开设一年级司法正义研讨课和关于美国宪法起草和批准的高阶课程。在乔治城大学法学院任教之前,他曾任福特汉姆大学法学院院长、Paul Fuller 讲席法学教授,也曾供职于多个政府部门。他曾任美国第二巡回上诉法院 James L. Oakes 法官的法官助理。他拥有耶鲁大学学士学位(以最优等成绩毕业)、耶鲁大学法律博士学位及哈佛大学历史学博士学位。
  
William M. Treanor is the Dean and Executive Vice President of Georgetown University Law Center, and he holds the Law Center’s Paul Regis Dean Leadership Professorship. National Jurist Magazine has named him one of the most influential people in legal education four times. He has also been recognized as one of the 10 most-cited legal history scholars in the United States by the University of Chicago Law School’s Brian Leiter. Treanor’s areas of expertise include constitutional law, property law, criminal law, intellectual property, and legal history. At Georgetown Law, he has taught a first-year legal justice seminar and an upper-level course on the framing and ratification of the U.S. Constitution. Before coming to Georgetown, Treanor was Dean and Paul Fuller Professor of Law at Fordham Law School. He also has served in a variety of positions in the government. He was law clerk to the Honorable James L. Oakes, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Treanor has a Ph.D. in history from Harvard University, a B.A. from Yale College (summa cum laude) and a J.D. from Yale Law School.
  
讲座摘要:
  在起草 1787 年《美国宪法》制宪会议接近结束时,与会代表任命了风格委员会(Committee of Style),负责汇总制宪会议已同意的宪法条款并为最终起草做好准备。宾夕法尼亚州代表古弗尼尔·莫里斯(Gouverneur Morris)为风格委员会起草了宪法草案,并在几乎没有修改或争论的情况下被制宪会议接受。两百多年来,对莫里斯是否暗中对文本进行了修改以推行自己的宪政理念一直存在争议。但法学家和历史学家要么无视这一问题,要么断定莫里斯是一位诚实的代笔人。讲座将呈现莫里斯对草案做了哪些改变,以及这些变化有多么重要。今天美国宪制中很多核心元素全部或至少在相当程度上是委员会草案的产物。总体而言,为了实现自己的宪法图景,莫里斯对文本进行了十五项重大修改,包括加强联邦政府、行政机关和司法机关;为司法审查提供文本基础;通过扩大弹劾概念增强对总统的问责;保护私有财产;为遏制奴隶制蔓延要求人口普查必须反映“实际统计”等。莫里斯最后一刻的修改改变了美国宪法。
  
At the end of the proceedings of the federal convention that wrote the United States Constitution in 1787, the delegates appointed the Committee of Style to bring together the textual provisions that the convention had previously agreed to and to prepare a final constitution. Pennsylvania delegate Gouverneur Morris drafted the document for the committee, and, with few revisions and little debate, the convention subsequently adopted the constitution proposed by the Committee. For more than two hundred years, questions have been raised as to whether Morris as drafter covertly made changes to the text in order to advance his constitutional vision, but the legal scholars and modern historians studying the convention have either ignored the issue or concluded that Morris was an honest scrivener.  In my talk, I will discuss the changes that I have found and talk about how important they are. Many of the central elements of the Constitution (including the Preamble; the basic Article I, Article II, and Article III structure; the vesting clauses that begin the first three Articles of the Constitution and that frame the power of each branch of government; the contract clause; and the impeachment clause) were wholly or in critical part the product of the Committee’s work. In total, Morris made fifteen significant changes to the Constitution, and these textual changes advanced his constitutional goals, including strengthening the national government, the executive, and the judiciary; providing the textual basis for judicial review; increasing presidential accountability through an expansive conception of impeachment; protecting private property; mandating that the census report reflect “actual enumeration,” and fighting the spread of slavery. In critical ways, Morris’s last minute changes transformed the text of the Constitution.
  
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